Common Orchid Tree (Bauhinia variegata): Complete Growing & Care Guide

orchid tree


Plant Type: Tropical evergreen
Family: Fabaceae
Sun Exposure: Full Sun to Semi-Sun
Watering: Regular Watering, Drought Tolerant Once Established
Colors: Flowers: White, Pink, Purple; Foliage: Green
Size: Up to 20-35 ft. tall and wide (6-10 m)
Hardiness Zones: 9a and above
Soil Type: Moist, Well-Drained Loam
Soil pH:
Propagation: Seeds
Toxicity: Generally Non-Toxic

The Common Orchid Tree (Bauhinia variegata) is a captivating plant known for its stunning flowers that resemble orchids. This tree is native to Southeast Asia, particularly India and China, and has become a beloved addition to gardens in warmer climates. Growing and caring for Bauhinia variegata requires a combination of sunlight, appropriate soil, and protection from cold winds to ensure a healthy, blossoming tree.

This versatile plant grows well in full sun or light shade and prefers moist, well-draining soils. It can reach a height of 20-35 feet (6-10 meters) and its naturally multi-stemmed shrub form can be shaped into an attractive single-trunk tree with staking and careful pruning. Drought tolerance is a notable feature of the Orchid Tree, making it suitable for areas with limited water resources once established.

For an abundant display of its beautiful, variegated flowers, the Orchid Tree requires some attention to pruning, as it blooms on old wood. Regular application of a balanced landscape fertilizer also supports healthy growth and flowering. By following these crucial care tips, gardeners can ensure their Bauhinia variegata thrive and provide a captivating focal point in their landscape.

Common Orchid Tree: Overview

The Genus Bauhinia: A Closer Look

The Bauhinia genus includes a varied range of deciduous and evergreen trees, commonly known as orchid trees due to the resemblance of their flowers to orchids. The trees are characterized by their canopy of light green leaves, often resembling butterfly wings, which has also earned them the nickname “butterfly tree.

The Common Orchid Tree: Species and Varieties

Bauhinia variegata, is a small evergreen plant that can be categorized between a deciduous tree and a shrub. The tree can grow up to a height of 20-35 ft. (6-10 m) if staked and pruned properly.

There are multiple varieties of the Bauhinia variegata, including the most prominent one, Bauhinia × blakeana – the Hong Kong Orchid Tree. This variety is seedless and features stunning six-inch, orchid-like flowers, with rich reddish or rose-purple colors during the winter.

Native Habitats

The native habitats of Bauhinia variegata are typically tropical and subtropical regions with moist, well-drained soils. The trees prefer full sun to light shade, and once they become established, they exhibit drought tolerance. Southern Florida provides an ideal climate for the growth of the orchid tree as the warm and sun-filled environment supports the tree’s needs.

To properly care for the Common Orchid Tree, provide landscape fertilizer and water sparingly. Normal rainfall usually ensures sufficient moisture. However, in extreme drought conditions, it is essential to water the Bauhinia variegata with a garden hose. Some pruning will help shape the tree and control its growth.

Orchid Tree Care

To ensure the proper growth and health of this versatile plant, it’s essential to understand its care requirements.

Sunlight and Temperature

The Bauhinia orchid tree thrives in full sun to light shade conditions. It is important to protect the tree from cold winds, as it is sensitive to extreme weather.

Watering Needs

Once established, the Bauhinia is drought-tolerant, being able to survive without much supplemental water. Normal rainfall should be sufficient for its needs, but if faced with extreme drought-like conditions, it is advisable to water the tree occasionally with a garden hose.


Bauhinia variegata can benefit from the application of landscape fertilizer to support its growth. While it doesn’t require an excessive amount of fertilization, providing supplementary nutrients can promote overall health.

Soil Requirements

Bauhinia variegata prefers mildly acidic, well-drained soils with a pH between 5.5 and 6.5. It can adapt to various types of soils, such as loam, sandy, or clay. If planting in clay soils, add amendments, such as compost to improve the texture and drainage properties.

Remember to provide adequate care for the Bauhinia variegata to ensure it achieves its full potential as an attractive tree or multi-stemmed shrub.


Some pruning will help the tree adopt the desired shape, but it’s not always required. If you’re aiming to create an attractive tree structure, it is wise to have the plant staked and pruned.

Bauhinia variegata grows best in full sun or light shade, typically developing as a multi-stemmed shrub. However, when properly staked and pruned, it can become an attractive tree. The flowers grow on old wood, so it’s crucial to prune after the flowering stage.

Here are some pruning tips:

  • Prune the tree during the late winter or early spring when the tree is dormant to encourage new growth.
  • Use clean and sharp pruning tools to avoid infections and make concise cuts.
  • Remove dead, damaged, or diseased branches to improve the overall health of the tree.
  • Thin out crowded branches for better air circulation and sunlight penetration.
  • Trim back unruly branches to help the tree maintain its desired shape.

It is also worth noting that if the Bauhinia is entering dormancy or if no new nodes are present, the entire flower spike should be removed. Make a clean, concise cut leaving just one inch of spike attached to the stem.

Growing From Seeds

orchid tree

Bauhinia variegata can be grown from seeds and offers gorgeous, orchid-like blooms in a variety of colors. Follow the steps below.

Step 1: Seed Preparation

Before planting the seeds, they should be soaked in warm water for 24 hours to speed up the germination process. This helps to soften the seed coat, allowing for easier penetration of water and oxygen.

Step 2: Planting Medium

Select a well-draining planting medium such as a mix of peat moss, perlite, and coarse sand in equal parts. Fill a planting tray or a small pot with the planting medium, leaving approximately half an inch of space from the top edge.

Step 3: Seed Placement

Place the soaked seeds on the surface of the planting medium, spacing them about two to three inches apart to prevent overcrowding. Gently press the seeds into the medium and cover them with a thin layer, approximately half an inch deep.

Step 4: Watering

Water the seeds thoroughly, ensuring that the planting medium is evenly moist but not waterlogged. Maintain consistent moisture levels throughout the germination period by regularly misting or watering the medium.

Step 5: Germination Conditions

Place the seeds in a warm and well-lit area, with a temperature range of 70-75°F (21-24°C). Seeds usually germinate within two to three weeks under these conditions, and young seedlings will start to emerge.

Step 6: Transplanting

Once the seedlings have developed a few sets of true leaves, they are ready to be transplanted. Carefully separate the seedlings and transplant them into individual pots filled with a well-draining potting mix.

Step 7: Care and Growth

As the Bauhinia variegata seedlings continue to grow, provide them with adequate light and maintain a consistent watering schedule. Ensure the soil remains moist but not waterlogged, and protect the young plants from cold winds or freezing temperatures. Propagating Bauhinia variegata

Propagation of this species can be done using seeds or cuttings.


For propagation by cuttings, follow these steps:

  1. Choose a healthy branch with young shoots, as they tend to root better.
  2. Remove any leaves or flowers from the cutting, leaving just a few leaves at the top.
  3. Make a straight cut at the bottom of the cutting, just below a node.
  4. Dip the cut end in rooting hormone to promote root growth.
  5. Plant the cutting in a pot filled with a well-draining soil mix, burying the cut end about 2 inches deep.
  6. Keep the soil consistently moist and place the pot in a shaded area.

It may take a few weeks for roots to form on the cutting. Be patient and monitor the cutting for any signs of distress.


To propagate Bauhinia variegata using seeds, follow these steps:

  • Soak the orchid tree seeds in a bowl of water for 24 hours.
  • Remove the seeds from the water and plant them 1 inch deep in 1-gallon planting pots filled with potting soil.
  • Place the pots in a shady area and keep the soil moist, but not soggy.

Keeping the soil properly hydrated and providing the right environment for germination is crucial for successful propagation.

Orchid Tree Flower

These flowers are five-petaled and come in various colors such as white, pink, and purple. The open petals have a papery texture with wavy edges, and a single flower can feature multiple colors.

Bauhinia variegata is a species that is particularly known for its showy flowers. These blooms are considered “perfect,” as they bear both male and female parts on the same flower. The flowers of the orchid tree can be used in traditional Indian and Nepalese recipes, as their bulbs and flowers are edible.

The plant thrives in moist, well-drained soils and requires protection from cold winds. Once established, it becomes drought-tolerant. Bauhinia tends to grow as a multi-stemmed shrub but can be staked and pruned to become an attractive tree. It is crucial to note that the flowers grow on old wood, so it’s best to prune the tree after flowering.

The Bauhinia variegata can grow up to 20-35 ft. tall and wide (6-10 m). Unlike the common orchid tree, the Hong Kong orchid tree’s flowers are sterile and do not produce seed pods or fruits, making it a great choice for public gardens and urban landscaping. However, it does produce a moderate amount of litter from fallen flowers and leaves later in the season.

Pest and Disease Control

Orchid trees (Bauhinia variegata) are generally free of serious pests and diseases, making them relatively low-maintenance plants. However, they can still be affected by certain pests and diseases that may require attention.

Common Pests

  • Caterpillars: These insects can feed on the leaves of the Bauhinia, causing significant damage. Regularly inspect the leaves for caterpillars and remove them manually. In severe cases, consider using a biological control agent, such as Bacillus thuringiensis.
  • Mites: Mites can cause the flowers of the orchid tree to wilt. To control mite infestations, release beneficial predatory mites or apply a miticide specifically designed for ornamental plants.
  • Borers: Borers can feed on the softwood of the trunk and branches, potentially causing structural damage. Monitor the tree for signs of borer infestations, such as holes in the bark or sawdust-like frass. If borers are present, apply a suitable insecticide to the affected areas.


Bauhinia are generally resistant to diseases, but they can occasionally be affected by fungal infections. The most common issue is leaf spot, which can be identified by the presence of yellow or brown spots on the leaves. To control leaf spot, remove affected leaves and maintain good air circulation around the tree. Applying a fungicide may also be helpful, especially during periods of wet or humid weather.

Preventative Measures

To keep your tree healthy and free of pests and diseases, follow these guidelines:

  • Plant the tree in well-drained, loamy, neutral soil.
  • Ensure the tree receives full sun or high, shifting shade.
  • Maintain a moderate, regular watering schedule.
  • Prune the tree to maintain good air circulation and remove dead or damaged branches.
  • Monitor the tree regularly for signs of pests or diseases, and take action as needed.

Landscape Uses

Bauhinia variegata, commonly known as the orchid tree, makes an impressive addition to any landscape due to its stunning flowers and unique foliage. Bauhinia can be utilized in various landscape settings to enhance the visual appeal of gardens and outdoor spaces.

As a specimen shrub, the orchid tree can be strategically placed in borders to create an attractive focal point. Its vibrant, orchid-like flowers with five irregular petals come in a range of colors, including pink, red, orange, yellow, white, and purple. These flowers, combined with its distinctive double-lobed green leaves resembling cow hooves, provide color and texture contrast among other plants in the landscape.

Being a relatively small tree, Bauhinia variegata can also be used as a street tree in tropical and sub-tropical regions where frost-free conditions are prevalent. With a height range of 20-35 feet (6-10 meters) and a similar width, it provides shade and visual interest without causing damage to pavements, buildings, or power lines.

Here are some recommended landscape uses for Bauhinia variegata:

  • Border planting for visual impact
  • Street tree in suitable climates
  • Mixed-species gardens for diversity
  • Understory planting in larger landscapes
  • Courtyards and patios for ornamental value

For best results, provide the orchid tree with a full sun to light shade position and moist, well-drained soils. Keep in mind that it needs protection from cold winds, as it can only tolerate light frosts and temperatures down to 22°F (-6°C). In addition, proper pruning and staking can help maintain an attractive tree form, especially in the early stages of growth.

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